The Pine tree is the basic source of Gum, Wood and Tall Oil rosins. For hundreds of year only gum rosin, obtained from exudates of the living pine tree, was produced commercially. However at the turn of this century both aged pine stump wood and tall oil have become versatile raw materials for the production of rosin.

Rosin is a complex mixture of mainly resin acids and small amount of non-acidic components. Its  colour, depending on the source and methods of processing, can vary from a water white through dark red to almost black, with a tinge of red . It is generally translucent and brittle at room temperature. The other properties which are of importance in judging the quality of rosin are acid value, saponification value, softening point and unsaponification value. However, entire rosin is sold and purchased on the colour basic, the lighest colour bring the highest price. Opacity in rosin some time degrades its value. Sometimes rosin is upgraded to get better market prices.


Rosin acid are monocarboxylic acids having typical molecular formula C20-H20-O2.  The structural formulas of all the known rosin acid which may be divided into abietic and pimaric type. The pimaric type  rosin acid differ from those of abietic type, in that they have  two alkyl groups in C-7 position in the place of isopropyl group. When double bond occurs in one of these alkyl group, it cannot conjugate with a cylic double bond . Consequently the double bonds in pimaric and isopimaric acid are not conjugated and so not very reactive.

Reaction and derivative

The rosin acid molecule prosseses  two chemical reactive centers, double bonds and the carboxyl group. Through these, many modification in structure and numerous derivatives are obtainable. Abietic  acid is customarily and conveniently used to exemplify the structural and chemical reaction of rosin, since this compound and/or its isomers and reaction products, constitute the bulk of commercial product. Although the molecular weight of pure acid is 303, for rosin , the value is usually taken as 340 due to the presence of neutral for calculation in involving carboxyl group

Rosin is human nature to give a wide range of uses natural chemicals, is also a renewable resource,  friendly  green concept of environmentally friendly materials. But because it is easy to oxidative deterioration and other short comings, is generally not used directly, but for further processing. Rosin Derivative products are widely used in adhesives, inks, paints, tires, plastics, paper, gum, welding materials and other industries.



Rosin derivative in many industries

  1. 1.     Paper Industries

In the paper industries, Rosin acid is used for rosin sizing. There has two type rosin size, there is Rosin Soap and Rosin Emulsion

At the present time , Rosin size is the most widely used agent for the manufacture of sized paper . Rosin size is a dispersion of rosin or one or more rosin derivative In an aqueous medium containing sodium rosinate ( rosin Soap ) and Rosin Emulsion. It is generally applied by the beater addition process and the sizing components are deposited on fibers by the action of alum.

Rosin size has several disadvantages as a sizing agent for paper. One disadvantages is that when it is applied by the beater addition process, as is typical, the resulting paper is acidic because alum which is used as precipitate is acidic. A second disadvantage is that the correct proportioning of the alum and the rosin size is a significant item of technical expense. A third is that sulfate ion ( from the alum ) continuously build up in the white water system, requiring a portion of the white water to be bled off from the system.


  1. 2.     Adhesive Industries

Adhesives represent an important and growing market for rosin and its derivatives. Rosin has been used for many years in a wide range of adhesive and sealant applications, but over the years these applications have changes dramatically. Rosin and rosin pitch were used in colonial times to seal the hull of wooden ships. In more recent years the availability of a wide range of synthetic polymers suitable for use in adhesive.

In today’s adhesive market, rosin and rosin derivative are used as tackifying resins or modifiers for many types elastomers, thermoplastic rubbers, and other backbone polymers.  Rosin and its derivatives are used in combination with many different polymers in many types of end-use application.  For example they are used in :

  1. Pressure sensitive adhesive
  2. Hot-melt adhesive
  3. Adhesive laminates
  4. Mastics and sealants

Although for many years only unmodified rosin was used as a tackifier, today most of the rosin used in this application is chemical modified to change its softening point and to improve its heat and oxidation stability. Thus, the product is most common use today are esters of rosin like :

  1. Glycerol rosin ester
  2. Pentaerythritol rosin ester
  3.  Disproportionated rosin ester
  4. Hydrogenated rosin
  5. Polymerized rosin

The key characteristics influencing selection of a tackifier are softening point, acid number, color, odor, solubility, compatibility, chemical and thermal stability.


  1. 3.     Ink Industries

The ink  industry is one of the most important market for rosin based product. Modified rosins, metal resonates that range in physical state from viscous liquids to wide varity of commercial inks. Some of the properties imparted to inks by rosin derived resin constituents include pigment  wetting, holdout ( resistance to penetration of substrate ), specific adhesion to substrates, hardness  and gloss. In certain inks, the rosin component control to a large extent the working properties of the ink on the press. Representative of such resins are :

a  Polymerized rosin

b. Dimerized rosin,

c.  Limed polymerized

d.  Maleic modified glycerol ester of rosin

e. Pentaerythriol rosin ester

d. Phenolic modified rosin ester


  1. 4.    Rubber Industries

The rubber industry represents a significant outlet for rosin and rosin derivatives. The use of soap of modified rosin for the emulsion polymerization of butadiene-styrene has become commercial in 1946. Consumption of rosin based emulsifier has continued to grow along with the growth of S-B_ rubber production and this application now represents the last single outlet of rosin in the elastomer field. For use as an emulsifier in the production of a synthetic rubber, a disproportionate rosin is usually converted to a potassium soap, which is sold to rubber producers as an aqueous 80% solid pasta.

The synthetic rubber producer prepares a dilute aqueous solution of the rosin soap and includes other water soluble ingredients in polymerization recipe. The dilute solution is then used to emulsify monomers, styrene and butadiene.

Modified rosin such as hydrogenated or disproportionate rosin, is preferred rubber compounders because these forms of rosin do not retard cure. Using amounts of modified rosin as high as 15 pt/100 pts of styrene-butadiene rubber gives combinations of good building tack, low heat build up and good resistance to flex cracking, particularly after aging.

In ethylene-propylene  polymers  the lack of tack has been serious short coming and certain rosin esters have been found to be effective tackifier for these polymers. In compounding cis-poly butadiene rubber, disproportionate rosin is recommended as a processing aid and tackifier.


PT. Indonesia Pine Chemical Industri ( INDOPICRI )is manufacture of rosin derivative (  Rosin ester/ Resin  ), Our Located is Raya Sumput 17 Driyorejo , Gresik, East Java- Indonesia. Now we have many product from rosin derivative. Our product of rosin derivative  for paper industry, adhesive industry, ink industry , coating industry and rubber industry.

Now Our capacity is 2.400 ton/year and the future can reach until 5.000 ton/year. Now we are the pioneer of rosin derivative in Indonesia.